Celtic Spirituality: From Pagan to Christian

This webpage covers both preChristian and Christian Celtic Religion

CONVERSION! The Story of Celtic Christianity from its Triumph to Its Decline by Teresa Cross (Treasa NIc an Chrosain) 

This page includes links to information on pre-Christian Celtic religion and information and links on Celtic Christianity If you are interested in Celtic Christianity, scroll down below:

CEAD MILE FAILTE!/CEUD MILE FAILTE/CROESO/DEGEMER MAT/BIENVENUE!

Hello! Cead Mile Failte! My name is Teresa Monica Cross (Treasa Moncha Nic an Chrosain in Irish/Gaelic) and I offer the following links and information on Druidism, Celtic Religion and Celtic Christianity for educational purposes. You have to understand the pre-Christian Celtic tradtions to understand fully the Christianity of the Celtic peoples and vice versa. Please note that I do not necessarily endorse the information on all of the links, but I think it is a good start. There are lot of people nowdays claiming to be Irish, Scots or Welsh these days, but I am the real thing! You will not see many of my kind again! I just want to straighten out the record on the history of my very early ancestors. Thank you. Go raibh maith agat. Is mise le meas, --Treasa

ABALLONAS New York, NY (English language page) led by Cobios-Druuis Belenios Ategnatos go to the following website of Quebec, Canada and follow the link : 

  MAIN website (French):

http://www.druidisme.org/

Celtic Reconstructionism and "Retropaganism" is religion based on the use of Old and Middle Irish textual evidence, folk survivals, and methods of comparative mythology and religion taking into account  Indo-European philology and comparative studies, Indo-European origins of Celtic religion, other Indo-European religions such as Germanic Asatru, Slavic Runvira, Baltic Romuva, Religio Romana, Hellenismos and living I-E religions such as Vedic Hinduism and Zarathustiranism (of the Parsis and Gabars). We do not use neopagan forms such as Wicca and Masonic magic(k). Our Celtic Religion is based on solid Indo-European ground and comparisons with Vedic traditions of India (a living Indo-European religion). We are the only Celtic religion organization in which our Druids have been recognized by their Indian (Hindu) equivalents the Brahmins. Our guidelines for forming a touta will be contained in the book THE SACRED CAULDRON: SECRETS OF THE DRUIDS (Second Edition, see below).

People who are of Celtic descent or are Celtophiles are all invited:

We do not discriminate based on gender, sexual orientation, race or national origins. Anyone can become a Celt through Celticization. All are invited to begin planting a Touta or Tuath (congregation or kindred). If you want authentic Celtic religious tradition then we recommend that you contact us and begin learning about Celtic religion. Study all of the following links and books listed below. Hit your back button to get back to this page.

 BOOKS AND LINKS:

We recommend that you read articles from the old Imbas webpages which are still up for historical purposes:

http://www.imbas.org/

Read the following books to begin your study:

The Druids by Peter Berrresford Ellis (Eerdmans)

The Sacred Cauldron: Secrets of the Druids by Tadhg MacCrosaan (Llewellyn,Second Edition: Runa Raven Press  FORTHCOMING)

Ancient Irish Tales edited by T.P.Cross and Clark Harris Slover (Barnes and Noble)

In Search of the Indo-Europeans by J.P. Mallory

The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World by J.P.Mallory and D.Q. Adams

Who were the Celts? (see Wikipedia)

The Celts were a branch of the Indo-European speaking family of cultures and languages. They compromise the following ethnic and nationality groups: Ancient Britons, Picts, Irish, Cornish, Welsh, Gauls, Gaels (Scots, Irish and Manx), "Scots-Irish", Gallegos, Galatians. Celtic languages of today include: Gaeilge, Gaelck (revived), Gaidhlig, Cymraeg, Brezhoneg, and Kernewek. (revived). Old Celtic languages are being reconstructed Old Celtic (Celtica) and Gaulish (Gallica).

     People of Celtic descent are spread out all over the world today. Many people are of Celtic descent and do not even realize it until they do their genealogy. Celtic cultural traits have been spread into many English speaking areas even when the old Celtic language has been abandoned for English. People of non-Celtic descent have become Celtic in their spirituality. Some of them are Celtophiles (lovers of things Celtic) at heart. Today and recent times, there has been a growing interest in all things Celtic because in the past they had often been ignored by educational intstituions. Ancient Celtic culture had great similarities to their neighbours the Germanics, Slavs, Balts, Scythians (Steppe Iranians) and their religion has remarkable similarities to Vedic Hinduism religion. Retropaganism differs from Paleopaganism in that the religious system has been adapted to modern times. To the untrained observer, our religion may seem to consist of a lot of Hinduizing. We study Hinduism because it is related to Celticism or Celtic Faith and is a living Indo-European religion. It is easy to join us and become a part of our movement. We do not run it as a hierarchical authority in which all have to go through membership degrees. Only our Druids are clergy who need intense formal training. We want people who want to plant congregations of like-minded people who are Celtophiles or call themselves Celts. We call the groups (Gaulish) toutas or (Old Irish) tuatha (plural of tuath). They must meet on a regular basis.

 

...and read the following article, Druidism and Vedism Compared  by Ariaxs Druuis Boutios

http://www.angelfire.com/folk/boutios/Dhruveda.html

Hindu and Celtic Culture are One by Belenios Ategnatos

http://www.dharmacentral.com/forum/content.php?140-Hindu-Celtic-Culture

 

 

RUNA RAVEN PRESS:

http://www.runaraven.com/index

Old Irish Quotations:

http://www.sengoidelc.com/

.Read HINDUISM TODAY (Issues of May and June 1994, July,1999) contains articles on the Celts and similarities to ancient Vedic India. 

The Vedas of ancient India online: THE VEDIC EXPERIENCE (anthology by Ramundo Pannikar):

http://www.himalayanacademy.com/resources/books/vedicpexperience/VEindex.html

Hallowed Halls of Northern Tradition (compares Norse, Slavic, Baltic, and Hindu Vedic traditions:

http://jeffdiehl.com/

Kredenn Geltiek Hollvedel is Universal Celtic Faith in the Breton Celtic language. It has groups in Brittany, Ireland, Canada, Germany and America. Druidiacta is Gaulish for Druidism. The druidical college is called Commardiia Druuidiacta Aremorica (in Old Celtic) in Brittany. Our Uer-Druis is Gobannogenos. Our French language author is Yvan Guehhenec ("Talork"). The Druids in Quebec are led by Ariaxs Druuis Boutios. Among our groups are Sanskrit and Old Celtic scholars.

Contacts and leadership

Brittany (France): Uer-Druuis or Ver-Druis Gobannogenos

and author Talork (Yvan Guehennec)

Quebec(Canada): Ariaxs-Druuis Boutios

New York, NY: Cobios-Druuis Belenios Ategnatos

Texas: Uer-Druis (emeritus) and KGH druidisant Tasgognata (Teresa McCrossan. pen-name"Tadhg MacCrossan" )

Arizona: (former Allio-Uer-Druis of Druidiactos) Taranucnos Esugenos

 Republic of Ireland: Luguana Labratiogena (now deceased)

Materials and books in French by Yvan Guehennec "Talork"

http://druuidiacto.forum.net/ 

 

 

A Revival of the Celtic Religion by Reconstruction

You may notice that I have avoided using the word “pagan” preferring to use the term “pre-Christian.” The ancient Latin term paganus originally was a pejorative meaning literally a country-dweller. Among the early Christians who were concentrated in the cities (civitates) the people who clung longer to the older beliefs and practices tended to be rural. The Christians called them pagani just as people today often use the English words hicks, bumpkins, or rustics.

Today, most country people tend to be Christians today. Besides the word pagan has been over-used and has connotations of people who have no morals or ethics. I chose to use the term pre-Christian which is more precise. Some people prefer calling themselves heathen. The word heathen literally means someone who lives on a heath or “backwoods.” Again, this term is a pejorative. In early times, Christians used the term gentile as a translation of the Hebrew word goyim “nations.”

Such a concept is known by calling people simply “outsiders” which is not as offensive. I believe it is best to avoid having an “us versus them” mentality.

 

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 However, our religious path is not “matriarchal.”  We do not exclude men and men are fully involved in our religion. We do not exclude women who have religious gifts or specialties either and may take leadership roles. We have many important goddesses. The female deities are rulers over many rivers and have rivers in Europe named after them such as Danu (Danube, Don, Donets ,Dniester, etc)  Matrona(Marne), Sequana (Seine), Bouinda (Boyne), Sinann (Shannon) etc. One of our most popular goddesses is Brigantia (Brigit, Brigindu) and to whom the Feast of Oimelg (Imbolg) is dedicated.  

      It is a now known that ancient Israelites (ancestors of the Jews) even had a consort to their god, Yahweh who was named Asherah, but the patriarchal prophets suppressed this notion. Later, the Jewish mystics said that the Shekinah was their god’s consort which they called Holy Sophia (Wisdom) in Greek. There is a modern saying that “a religion without a goddess is half-way to atheism!”

 

 

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Are you Witches?

 

We are not witches. Witch religion is mainly a 20th century religion created and founded by Gerald Brousseau Gardner, an Englishman, based on 19th century theories derived from Jules Michelet (La Sorciere), Godfey Leland (Aradia: Gospel of the Witches), Sir James Frazer (The Golden Bough), Johann Bachhofen (Mother Right or Das Mutterrecht), and the 20th century Margaret Murray (Witchcult in Western Europe), Robert Graves (The White Goddess), Co-Masonic Freemasonry, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Ceremonial magic). He authored Witchcraft Today in 1954, after Witchcraft laws were repealed in the U.K. in 1952.

Witchcraft was renamed “Wicca” based on the Old English word wiccecraeft, however the Old English witchcraft was not a religion but methods of divination and prophecy practiced by ancient Germanic religion and was ruled over by the goddess Freyja and her consort Freyr. It is interesting to note that Freyr and Freyja, literally mean Lord and Lady in Old Norse and in the Common Germanic from which they derive (Old English: Frea and Freo). In Old Norse, the word for “witchcraft” was called seidhr and derives from the same PIE root as Welsh hud (*soitos). This Teutonic divintation consisted of scrying over bubbling kettles, shamanistic techniques of dream or incubation prophecy, but it contained nothing of the “ceremonial magick” or rituals found in most Wicca covens today. Celtic Wicca is basically Wicca with a few borrowings from the Celtic tradition as a Celtic icing on a Witchcraft Gardnerian cake. Wicca has only two main deities: the so-called Horned God loosely based on “Father Sky,”  Cernunnos of the Celts, Pan of the Greeks but mostly it is derived from Freyr of the Vanir cult and the Goddess, who is called “Mother Earth” based on the Greek goddess Gaia (consort of Ouranos) and on Robert Graves’ “matriarchal the “White Goddess” theories. It is interesting to note that Graves, later in his life, repudiated his book in a letter to a fan “It’s a crazy book and I did not intend to write it.”

Witches use symbols such as the five pointed pentagram star to distinguish themselves. They have ritual tools such as the athame (a black hilted knife), pentacle, a chalice or goblet, candle, a wand and sometimes they use a scourge. They might burn incense (usually patchouli). All of these things may appear on their altars. They look suspiciously like Christian implements: chalice, spear shaped knife (to cut leavened bread as in Eastern rites), the cross-stick used in Eastern rites is like the wand, the discos or paten (used for the bread). Witches also serve cakes and ale as a kind of communion. They call on the quarters, draw down the moon and sometimes use the so-called Great Rite (simulated or actual sexual intercourse between the high priest and high priestess). None of this was done in the ancient pre-Christian rites of the “pagans” of Europe. The Wiccan Rede “And it harm none, do what though wilt” etc. was based on Augustine of Hippo’s adage: “Love, and do what thou wilt!” This was filtered down to Rabelais in Pantagruel and Gargantua, Alesteir Crowley’s “Do what thou wilt is the whole of the law (Thelema). The saying appears on a sign on the Abbey of Theleme in Rabelais’s story.

 

 

   

Are you like a Western Version of Hinduism?

In many ways, we are very similar to the Vedic Hindus and when we have problems and are looking for answers, we look to them for help since they are a living and the main Indo-European religion that comes closest to being similar to us. Similarly, we can look to our reconstructionist cousins: the Asatru, Romuwa, Runvira, Hellenismos religions for reconstructing religious practices. They are all Indo-European in origin. The Vedic traditions of the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda, the Brahmanas, the Puranas, Upanishads and Brahma Sutras (Vedanta Sutras) contain a lot of material. Not all early Irish mediaeval texts have all been translated yet either.

Similarities between the two religions:

The Celts:                                                        The Hindus:

Three main worlds                                          Three main worlds

Bitus or Bith (“World” as middle realm)        Bhu (World as middle realm)

 Departed sould live in netherworld or subtle realms until their reincarnation.

Druids taught that the human soul and the cosmos are indestructible but that the cosmos ends and geins again through fire and water. Vedic rishis (seers) taught that each cosmos cycle was called a kalpa which also ends and begins through fire and water which are symbolic of light and sound.

Gods of both pantheons (deuoi and devas) are multifunctional with over-lapping functions.

Irish terms for breath and soul are anail and anam, the Sanskrit terms are prana and atman.

Celts had the gutuatir.                                    Vedic Hindus have the hotri.

The names gutuatir and hotri or hotar have the same PIE root *gheu- “to invoke or pour out a libation.”

Geometric fire pits were used for burnt offerings in both Celtic and Vedic rituals.

Celtic Druids were a learned class.                 Vedic Indian Brahmins were a learned caste.

Druids or ollamhs supervised performances of sacrifices or poetic recitations

The Vedic Indian Ritvij Brahmin supervised the performance of sacrificial rituals.

The Celts had the sacred Mead of Immortality and Beer of Goibhniu. Hindus have Soma.

 

           

Both Brahmins and Druids spent many years memorizing verses through an oral tradition.

Celts and Vedic Aryans both highly valued the power Truth and Eloquence.

The Celtic Laws of the Irish and the Hindu laws both recognized eight forms of marriage.

Celts believe in Bilios or Bile, the sacred tree, and Hindu’s had the concept of a world tree called the Skambha. (Germanic peoples had the sacred world tree of Yggdrasil).

They shared the same kind of luni-solar calendars, similar family units, and similar fasting customs.

 

There are many parallels between the Celts and The Germanic myth and religion:

Celtic/ Gaulish and Irish                                 Germanic/Norse

Bilios                                                               Yggdrasil

Lugus or Lugh                                                            Wodanaz/Odhinn

Ravens            and Crows                                          huginn and munnin

Eagle form (Mabinogi)                                    Eagle form (Skaldskaparmal)

Spear                                                               Spear

Closes one eye                                                            Sacrificed one of this eyes

Noudons (Nuadu or Nudd)                            Tiwaz/ Tyr

Has arm or hand cut off                                  Hand is bitten off

Sreng cuts it                                                    Fenrir bites it

Fomoraigh or under sea Giants                       Etins/Jotnar are Frost Giants

They oppose the deities                                  They oppose the gods

Catubodua or Badb Catha                              Waelcyrges or Valkyries

Goibhiu’s Beer (cuirm)                                   Sacred Mead of immortality.                         

of  immortality.          

Manannan                                                       Heimdallr

Taranus is the Thunderer                                 Thunar/Thor son of  Fjorynn

Oaks sacred to Taranus                                   Oaks sacred to Thor

Meldos (Welsh Mellt) is the lightning.           Thor’s hammer is called Mjollnir.

Meldos and Mjollnir derive from the same PIE root *meldhos

(H-)Ercunia is cognate with Fjorgynn.

Emain Abhlach or Tir n mBan                        Waelhall, Valhalla

Adbertos                                                         Blot

Blood sprinkled with small bough                  Blood sprinkled with evergreen bough

Parallels between Celtic and Greek Myth and Religion:

Celtic                                                   Greek

Lugh is hidden from his maternal grandfather. Zeus is hidden from Cronos his father

Both lead a fight against the Giants (Fomoraigh) and Titans.

Emain Abhlach                                   Garden of the Golden Apples of the Hesperides

Tir na mBan, Tir na nOg                     Elysion

Teach Duinn                                        Tartaros or Hades’ realm

Truth, Firinne (Virionia)                      Logos

Manannan MacLir                               Charon

Mead, Beer of immortality                 Nectar and Ambrosia

Bile or Bilios                                       Atlas as a tree in one of their stories

Oaks sacred to Taranus (Thunderer)   Oaks sacred to Zeus

Blood or water sprinkled with bough.            Greek priests sprinkled water with oak stick.

 

There are many numerous parallels and analgous themes in various Indo-European myths so I cannot possibly list them all here.

 

Does pagan Celtic Religion have a sacred scripture like the Christians have the Bible?

There are no sacred writings in the pre-Christian Celtic religion in the same sense that the Abramic religions possess. Most Christians actually worship the Bible as the “word of God” in their religion suggesting that they practice biblolatry (book-worship). There are myths that can be used as guide to the character, attributes and functions of the deuoi. They include many medieval Irish and Welsh materials such as the Lebor Gabala Erenn (ed. and trans. by R.A.S. MacAllister), or the compilation Ancient Irish Tales (ed. by Tom P.Cross and Clark H. Slover, 1936). The Welsh Mabinogi(on) has been translated a several times. I recommend the Mabinogi tran.by Patrick K. Ford. There are many ancient Irish law books such as those translated by Fergus Kelly and including the Audacht Morainn (Testament of Morann). The latter book is translated by Fergus Kelly and contains the actual sermon delivered to a druid to his king upon his inauguration. You need to be cautious with mythological materials because they have been through much heavy redaction by their monkish compilers and scribes. I also recommend that you check out my sources which are listed in the select bibliography.

 

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The Celtic Calendars

The oldest Celtic Calendar is called the Calendar of Coligny, unearthed in the 19th century. It was found near an image of Apollo, it dates to the 1st century CE and it is in the Gaulish language. It was, like many other pre-Christian and non-Roman calendars, luni-solar. Luni-solar calendars typically measure time by an approximation to phases of the moon based on alternating 29 and 30 night long months. They typically count days as beginning and ending at sundown rather than midnight. They begin the first night of a month near the new moon and count the full-moon as the “returning night” near the middle of the month. The Gauls called it atenoux “re-night.”  Ritual gatherings were labeled the iuos in Gaulish. There is no about that the names of months varied from place to place in the Celtic world. Plenty of the Gaelic names of the months are pre-Christian in origin on the Scottish Highland calendar, however they have been fixed as names of the equivalent Roman months. The Roman calendar is solar and was named the Julian Year because Julius Caesar hired an astronomer named Sosigenes to fix up the Roman Months to a solar year: 365 days plus an extra intercalary day added every fourth year. On the luni-solar calendars such as the Coligny of 1st century Gaul, there were 354 days in a year with an extra 30 day month added every 2.5 or 3 years to make up for the loss of time. Incidentally, the moons only run about 28 days and the year is 365 plus a fraction. This is why over the centuries a few days slipped on the Julian calendar so that the so-called Gregorian reform had to be made.

Of other Indo-European calendars, the ancient Germanic, Athenian and Hindu calendars are of the same type as is the Hebrew calendar. The Muslim calendar however is purely lunar. They have 12 months lasting only 28 days and because of it their fixed festivals slip backward throughout from year to year.

 

Gaulish Month Names:        

Samonios – (summer’s ending)October- Nov.  30 nights long

Dumannios—November-Dec. (smokey darkness) 29 nights

Riuros (thick) – December- Jan. 30 nights

Anagantios (non-travelling) January-Feb. 29 nights

Ogronios (coldness) February-March 30 nights

Cutios (windy) March-April 30 nights

Giamonios (winter’s end) April-May 29 nights

Simivisonnos (semi-spring) May-June 30 nights

Equos (horse) June-July 30 nights

Elembiuios (deer)  July- Aug.  29 nights

Aedrinios (hot) August- Sept. 30 nights

Cantlos (song) September – October 29 nights

 

Ciallos (intercalary month) 30 nights

 

 

 

Scottish Gaelic Month Names:

Samhain – November (end of summer, Samonios)

Dubhlachd – December (dark days)

Faoilleach – January (wolf month)

Gearran -- February (gelding)

Mart – March (borrowed from Latin)

Giblean – April (? entrails)

Ceitean – May (first of Summer)

Ogmhios -- June (the young or youth month)

Iuchar – July (spawn, dog days)

Lunasdal – August (Lunasa, games of Lugh)

Sultain – September (fattening month)

Damhar – October (rutting time month)

 

 

The Four Festivals of the YearT

                             It should not be any surprise to anyone that the Celtic festivals of the year did not include the solstices and equinoxes. These festivals were added by the Neopagans in the 20th century. The solstice was only mentioned as Sonnocingos (sun-march) on the Coligny calendar but was not really a ritual time for the Celts. Howevcr, phases of the moon were important and and the beginnings of months only approximating the new moon phase.

The year was divided into a summer-autumn half      and a winter-spring half, it was analogous to the cycle of creation and destruction of the cosmos and time. They day was analogous beginning with a dark half followed by a light half (sundown to sun-up), the month therefore was was a waxing fortnight followed by a waning fortnight. The full moon therefore was analogous to Bealtaine with the new moon analogous to Samhain.  It all symbolizes the cyclical view of time.

 

 

Samain (Samhain) or Samonios.   The festival falls on the full moon nearest the night which preceedes the 1st of November. This marks the beginning of the year and was celebrated for three nights. The feast is in honor of  the ancestral and household divinities (senistroi and uenideuoi). It marks the close of the old year and the beginning of the new year and commemorates spirits of the dead when the otherworld and this world overlap.

Oimelg (“Imbolg”) or  Ouiamelgtis “ewe-lactation”  Full moon nearest the eve of the 1st of February. This festival is mainly in honor of Brigit (Brigantia)

Bealtaine  -- (“Beltane”) Belotania “bright-fire” was also known as Cintusamoni (first of Summer). This festival is in honor of all the greater deities (Marodeuoi). It is the triumph of light of the sky and fire deities over the giants who represent oppression and obstacles to progress.

Lunasa (Lughnasadh) Lugunassates “Lugus’ games.”  This harvest festival was originally held for two weeks beginning on the full moon closest to the eve of the 1st of August. It is in honor mainly of Lugus (Lugh, Lleu

c) Treasa Nic an Chrosain, 2012 

If you are interested in Reconstructed Celtic Religion, contact  taranucnos.esugenos@yahoo.com

 

A BOOK LIST RECOMMENDED FOR WITCHES (Wiccans)

The Triumph of the Moon by Ronald Hutton

The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles by Ronald Hutton

The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory by Cynthia Eller

A Razor for a Goat by Elliot Rose 

Crafting the Art of Magic by Aidan Kelly

A History of Modern Witchcraft by Jeffrey Burton Russell

An article from the Clannada na Gadelica

Why Wicca Is Not Celtic

http://home.comcast.net/~uberrod/text4.html

(This article is by Iain Mac an tSaoir and Dawn O'Laoghaire)

 

"WICCA:

 CLAIMING TO BE ANCIENT SINCE 1954

 

The Christian Celtic Religion

CELTIC  CHRISTIANITY:

After Saints Palladius, Patrick, Brigid,Ninian, Columba and Aidan the new Christian faith began spreading in Ireland and Scotland all the way to Northumbria. This form of the Holy Catholic, Apostolic and Orthodox Church developed its own customs and traditions in response to the new physical and cultural environment. It has been called Celtic Christianity,

Celtic Christianity:

Learn more here

http://www.celticchristianitytoday.org/

 

Books of Interest:

The Secret Gospel of the Irish -- Behan and Behan

Introduction to Celtic Christianity-- James Mackey (editor)

Conversing with the Angels and Ancients -- J.F.Nagy

The Flowering of Ireland -- Katharine Scherman

Encyclopedia of Irish Spirituality -- Phyllis Jestice

Wisdom of the Celtic Saints -- Edward Sellner

The Seven Secrets of the Celtic Spirit -- William J. Fitzgerald

The Celtic Way of Evangelism -- George C. Hunter

The Celtic Way of Prayer -- Esther De Waal

The Celtic Way -- Ian Bradley

The Elements of Celtic Christianity -- Anthony Duncan

Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church -- E. Frederick Warren

In the House of Memory -- Steve Rabey

An Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom -- Carl McColman

Anam Cara -- John O'Donohue

Celtic Theology -- Thomas O'Loughlin

John Scottus Eriugena (9th century Irish mystic):

www.enlightened-spirituality.org/John_Scottus_Eriugena.html

The Celtic Rite of the MASS (or Divine Liturgy):

This  is a translation of the original and authentic 8th Century Mass from the "Stowe Missal" of Lorrha,Tipperary -- a Sacramentary and Missal from the c.790. It has been translated from the Latin and Old Irish. Click the URL below.

https://www.orthodoxwesternrite.wordpress.com/liturgy-iii/

The Churches that best represent Celtic Christian Spirituality today are the Anglican Communion Churches in USA, Canada, Scotland and Ireland. There are Irish and Gaelic language liturgies  available from the Scottish Episcopal Church and Church of Ireland. Some Western Rite Orthodox Churches have some Celtic Christian traditions:

The Episcopal Church (United States)

http://www.episcopalchurch.org/

Scottish Episcopal Church

http://www.scotland.anglican.org/

The Church of Ireland

http://www.ireland.anglican.org/

"Alternative" Churches (very strict and relatively small in numbers):

The Celtic Orthodox Christian Church

http://www.celticchristianity.org/

The Celtic Episcopal Church

http://www.celticepiscopalchurch.com/

 

Some very small groups: 

See also Celtic Orthodox Church and  British Orthodox Church, Church of the Culdees, Celtic Christian Church, Celtic Catholic Church etc.

Protestant oriented "Celtic" Churches include the "Reformed Celtic Church" and various other New Age churches

 

Beth Maxwell Boyle's Celtica Christos Websource:

http://http://www.ramshornstudio.com.celticia_christos.htm/

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

CAORANN: Celts Against Oppression Racism And Neo-Nazism:

http://www.bandia.net/caorann/

webmistress: Teresa Monica Cross (Treasa Nic an Chrosain), on Facebook (her pen-names are Tadhg MacCrossan and Teresa McCrossan). Celtic Scholar, Historian and Theologian. Ms Cross has been a scholar of Celtic history and religions since the mid-1980s. She has taught Bunrang Gaeilge for the Conradh na Gaeilge, Celtic Mythology for Richland College (1994), been a priest in the Celtic Christian Communion, a member of the Ceili De (Culdees) and a deacon in both the Celtic Orthodox Christian Church and Celtic Episcopal Church. She is now leader of the  Celtic Christian Spirituality Study Group and involved with the Anamchara Fellowship. She is descnded from the Mac an Chrosains, O'Connors and the Ballards of Ireland (to name a few), the Stewarts, MacGregors and Clan Fraser of Scotland, and the Jones of Wales. She lives in Fort Worth, Texas.

 

 

Note: This webpage is being updated from time to time

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